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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 42, April 1913"

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BULLETIN 

OF THE 

PENNSnVANlA 
MUSEUM 

PUGUSHED QlIARIERDr 
ESTTHEPENNSniANlA 
MUSEUM &r SCHOOL 
or INDUSTRIAL ART 

MEMORlAlrtiAU: 

rAIRM9UNT PARK 
PHItADEkPHIA 

SUBSCRIPTION SISSAYEAR 
APRIL, 1013 



P 



m 




Entered, Ansnst 27, 1903, at Pblladelpbia, Pa., as Second-Class Matter, andet Act ot Congress of JuIf 16, 1894 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 

£oar^ of ^Trustees 



Tbs GoTiBMcnt or TBt Stats, Ex-Of. 



Thb Mayob or tbx City, Es-Of. 



Cbaslu Bond 

Jam ES BUTTEKWOBTH 

John G. Cassuth 
Cbablxs E. Daka 
Teouai Dolan 
Haskington Fitzcebalo 
Chakues H. Haboing 



Mrs. John Harkison 
Thomas Skelton Habsison 
John Story Jekes 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Peppeb 

OtticetB 



Theodore C. Sbabcb 
Edgab V. Sekleb 
G. Henry Stetson 
Edward T. Stotesbury 
Jones Wisteb 
William Wood 



Viee-Prtsidtntt 



THEODORE C. SEARCH, Presidtnl 

JOHN STORY JENKS, 

JOHN G. CARRUTH, 

JAMES BUTTERWORTH, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER. Secretary 

LESUE W. MILLER, Principal of the School 



f 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Editor 



Bulletin 

ffor Hpril Nineteen 1HunJ)re& anl) ^birteen 



CONTENTS 

Two Pieces of Empire Furniture, by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 

Chinese Enamels, by Edwin A. Barber 

Educational Playing Cards, by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 

Porcelaine de Monsieur, by Edwin A. Barber 

The Magi in Art 

Norwegian Sideboard 

Old American Pewter 

The Museum and School 

Notes .... 

List of Accessions 

Membership, etc. 



PAGE 

22 
26 
29 
30 
31 
33 
34 
40 

41 
42 



BULLETIN 

OF 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

APRIL, 1913 ELEVENTH YEAR Number 42 



I 



TWO PIECES OF EMPIRE FURNITURE 

Owing to the death in 191 1 of Mrs. Oliver Hopkinson and to the conse- 
quent breaking up of the home occupied by the family at 1424 Spruce street, 
the Pennsylvania Museum has been enabled to secure two handsome pieces of 
furniture of the Empire period. These form an important addition to the 
alcove assigned at Memorial Hall to that order of furniture, of the collection 
of which the superb sideboard bequeathed by the late Miss Elizabeth Gratz to 
the Museum in the main formed the nucleus. 

The pieces referred to are a large pier mirror framed in wood and orna- 
mented with heavy gilt garlands ancl other designs in the style of the period. 
The glass of old French plate is set up on a low massive stand or low console 
two feet six inches in height, with fluted columns of light wood. Two stiff, 
draped female figures three feet high, bearing baskets on their heads and 
standing on wood and gilt pedestals two feet one inch high, rise on either side 
and add to the dignity of the piece. As a whole, the latter stands eleven feet 
from the floor. It is six feet in width. It came into the possession of the 
Hopkinson family through Mr. Oliver Hopkinson's marriage in 1847 with Miss 
Eliza Swaim. Her father, Dr. William Swaim, who died in 1846, had imported 
it from England. Dr. Swaim fought as Captain in the War of 1812. He was 
of Huguenot descent, and his ancestors had settled in Connecticut early in the 
seventeenth century. One of Mrs. Oliver Hopkinson's forebears was a mem- 
ber of the First General Court (the name given the Legislature in the new 
colonies), held at Hartford in 1636. Mr. Oliver Hopkinson died in 1905, his 
widow surviving him six years. 

The second piece of furniture, a mahogany wall table with gray marble 
top ancl columns, and ormolu decorative plaques, is a very fine example of the 
Empire style. It once belonged to Governor De Witt Clinton of New York, 
who died at Albany in 1828. It is three feet high by three feet six inches in 
width. How it came into the possession of the Swaim family is unrecorded 
otherwise than by tradition. It was given to Mrs. Hopkinson by Mrs. Cath- 
arine Swaim, widow of James Swaim and son of Dr. William Swaim and a 
half brother of Mrs. Oliver Hopkinson. Mrs. Catharine Swaim died in 1875. 
James Swaim had received it from his father, who died at his residence south- 
east corner of Seventh and Chestnut streets in 1846. 



20 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




PIER MIRROR 
Early Nineteenth Century 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 21 




WALL TABLE 
Formerly Owned by Governor De Witt Clinton 



It is from the same sale that a fine Guarnerius violin passed from the hands 
of the Hopkinson famil_y, of which it was a valued heirloom, into those of Mr. 
Thaddeus Rich, soloist of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and this recalls the fact 
that the men of the Hopkinson family for several generations have been skilled 
musicians, as well as noted statesmen and leading figures in the social, literary 
and political life of the community. The Hopkinson heirlooms, however, were 
in the main either distributed by will, or purchased by the members of the 
family. A good piece of Clignancourt porcelain was also secured, which is 
described elsewhere. S. Y. S. 



22 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

CHINESE ENAMELS 

The art of using colored enamels as a surface decoration on metal appears 
to have been practised in China as early as the fourteenth century of the 
Christian era, having been introduced into the north of China by Byzantine 
enamelers, and into the south somewhat later by the Arabs. Dr. Bushell, in 
his Chinese Art, states that "The most common 'mark' of Ming Cloisonne is 
'that of the Ching T'ai period (A. D. 1450-1456)," and he further informs us 
that among the earliest marks that have been noticed is that of the last emperor 
of the line, Chih Cheng, of the Yuan dynasty, who reigned from 1341-1367. 
Marked pieces, however, are exceedingly rare and the age of Chinese enamels 
can usually be approximated only by the peculiarities of their coloring, decora- 
tive treatment, and the shapes of the articles themselves. 

Chinese enamels may be divided into three classes: I. Cloisonne; II. 
Champleve; III. Painted. The Museum possesses a fine collection of Chinese 
cloisonnes and some good examples of champleve work, but in this article we 
shall attempt only to obtain a glimpse of the interesting enamels belonging to 
the third of these groups. 

Painted enamels are produced by covering the surface of the metal with 
a thin, opaque white or tinted ground, without the employment of cloisons, or 
separating wire partitions, and then painting the designs in the enamel colors 
with a brush. The metal foundations on which the painted enamels of the 
Chinese are placed are usually quite thin and light in weight. Canton has been 
the principal center for the production of these enamels since the K"ang-hsi 
period ( 1662-1722), during which reign the Limoges style of enamel painting 
was probably first introduced into China. 

The collections of Canton enamels in the Museum consist of a represent- 
ative series in the Bloomfield j\Ioore room and the noted collection formed by 
the late Dr. M. W. Dickeson, purchased from his estate with the income of 
the Joseph E. Temple trust. The two groups, which have been installed in 
two large cases in close proximity, contain plaques, plates, large temple censers, 
small incense-burners, wine pots, sweetmeat trays, vases, cups and saucers, tea- 
caddies, pricket candlesticks, pencil rests, jewel trays, tea-pots and numerous 
other objects intended for useful or ornamental purposes. 

The first impression one receives on viewing these brilliantly tinted enamels 
is that they represent an endless variety of styles in decorative treatment, with- 
out regard to plan or purpose. A closer inspection, however, will reveal the 
fact that many of these pieces have been painted in close imitation of the char- 
acteristic styles of porcelain decoration which prevailed in China under the 
different emperors, particularly through the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. In the collection we find examples of the famillc Z'cvtc of the K'ang- 
hsi period (1662-1722), with designs in copper green and dull red; specimens 
of the famille rose style, of the Ch'ien-lung reign (1736-1795), such as rose 
back plates with chrysanthemum designs in pink ; numerous pieces simulating 
the cloisonne enameling, copied from that variety of Chinese enameled porce- 
lain made for the Siamese and southern markets ; objects for the Persian trade, 
such as rose-water sprinklers and wine ewers, also copied from the Chinese 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 23 




LARGE TEMPLE CENSER 
Canton Enamel 



24 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




LARGE BOW L 
Canton Enamel 




LARGE PLAQUE 

Canton Enamel 

Dragons Amid Clouds 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 25 




WINE POTS 
Canton Enamel 




CUP AND SAUCER 

Canton Enannel 

Painted for the European Market 



26 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

originals in porcelain, and some interesting examples painted with European 
designs from colored prints which were sent to China to be copied on the 
porcelains of the late eighteenth and earl_v nineteenth centuries. 

The earliest piece of Canton enamel in the collections is a large bowl of 
the K'ang-hsi reign, with a plain powder blue ground. The Ch'ien-lung period 
is represented by numerous fine examples, including a graceful tea-pot with 
deep rose ground, and a bowl with pink ground decorated with dragons in 
green and brown (see small cut). Many other pieces, such as are usually 
attributed in museum collections to the period from 1736 to 1820, are of later 
date, extending into the middle of the nineteenth century, such as that numerous 
class of objects decorated with floral designs in polychrome on dark blue. 
These collections will be more fully treated in a handbook on the Museum 
enamels, which is now in course of preparation. E. A. B. 



EDUCATIONAL PLAYING CARDS OF THE EIGHTEENTH 

CENTURY 

A humble though truly interesting addition to the collections has been 
made recently in the shape of a pack of educational cards printed in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. It consists of a full pack of which no better 
description can be given than that presented by the author himself in the 
"Preface" card introducing the pack: 

"While Guthrie's and other grammars instruct those only who have oppor- 
tunity for study ; this compendium is calculated to give those who have 
not much time to read (and particularly young persons at school) a general 
acquaintance with the bigness, boundaries, population, capitals, latitudinal and 
longitudinal distances from London, islands, rivers, lakes, mountains, climates, 
productions, agriculture, manufactures, trades, government, religion, customs, 
learning and curiosities of every Kingdom or State in the world, in an easy 
suasory manner ; as it describes Asia under Spades, Africa under Clubs, Europe 
under Hearts, America under Diamonds ; arranged thus, each quarter is 
described on the first page of its suit, and each K. page contains the Kingdoms, 
and the number pages their descriptions ; the reader will observe that Tartary 
on the K. of spades has the figure '2' annexed, which refers to the 2 of spades ; 
England, Scotland and Ireland have 2, 3, 4, their description begins on the 2 
and ends on the 4, etc. The islands are on the O. and J. of each suit." 

A quaint note follows : 

"Should the scientific discover any inaccuracies, their candour will ascribe 
them to some pardonable cause ; and that of the public will graciously accept 
the labours of the Author as an evidence of his good will toward mankind." 
Some curious assertions on the part of the author show the state of knowledge 
of his day, and how little of the Western Hemisphere had been seriously 
explored. For instance, while describing the American Continent, he remarks : 
"In general it is not mountainous. Yet the Andes are so lofty that they almost 
scorn to be mentioned with any in the world." Again, in enumerating the 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



27 




> o 

< 2 



28 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

chief towns of the American Continent, he mentions first Mexico, 150,000 
inhabitants ; Lima, 60,000 : Quito, 60,000 ; Ciizco, 42,000 ; after which come 
Philadelphia, then still the Capital of the L'nited States, 42,000: New York, 
23,000; Boston, 19,000; Charleston, 15,000; Baltimore, 12,000: Quebec, 7000; 
Newport, 6000; Salem, 6000: Portsmouth, 5000, etc. At this time Louisiana 
belonged to Spain, to which France had ceded it in 1762. The L^nited States 
is mentioned as separate from those "Kingdoms or rather colonies which are 
in possession of European Kings." An article on Canada describes it as three 
thousand miles from London W. by N. and east New Britain and Hudson Bay, 
S. Nova Scotia, Province of Maine, New Hampshire, \'ermont and New York, 
W. by unknown lands. 

As to the date of the pack, the fact of Philadelphia being mentioned as 
the Capital of the United States shows it to have been at least as old as 1790 ^'' 
when Washington was founded and the seat of government was officially in 
Philadelphia until 1800, when it was removed to Washington. It may be noted 
that the resume of English history given on the 2, 3, and 4 of hearts, stops 
short with the ascent of the throne by George III — that is, 1760; and this fact, 
as well as that of Louisiana being mentioned as a Spanish possession, might 
have inclined one to give the cards an earlier date limit had it not been for a 
note on France which narrows the earliest time limit to about 1786- 1789. On 
the 5 of hearts may be found this sentence : "The French are now struggling 
for civil and religious liberty"' — which perfectly describes the legislative strug- 
gles of the crown and privileged classes and the tiers etat that immediately 
preceded the Revolution of 1789. Morever, while the article on Poland does 
not mention the first partition of that country in 1772, the note on Prussia 
states that "The}^ (the Poles) were almost ruined by the late King of Prussia,'' 
a luminous phrase which fixes the lower limit of time for the printing of the 
pack to 1786 when Frederick the Great died, who with Russia and Austria 
divided one-fifth of the Polish territory. There is no reference to the great 
partition of 1793 in which Catherine II. played a leading part. The positive 
dates 1786 and 1793, therefore, fix the extreme limits of age of this interesting 
pack. The other internal evidence referred to above fits in perfectly. As it is 
highly improbable that the pack could have been printed in either year form- 
ing the extreme of possible time, one mav fairlv name 1790 as the rough hvpo- 
thetic date. ' ' S. Y. S.' 



(1) Philadelphia, however, was usually the seat of Congress from 1774. 

The 1st Continental Congress was held in Carpenters' Hall, September 5, 1774; 
2d in old State House, Independence Hall. May 10. 1775: and excepting from September 
26, 1777, to June 18, 1778. when Philadelphia was occupied by the British, Philadelphia 
was the virtual capital of the colonies. The National Convention that framed the Con- 
stitution sat in Philadelphia 1787, and from 1790-1800 Philadelphia was the official Na- 
tional Capital. 

In 1790 Alexander Hamilton helped Jefferson to pass a bill authorizing the Presi- 
dent to select a site on the Potomac for the Capital and to provide for the reception of 
Congress in 1800. When this took place in the appointed year it was a "backwoods set- 
tlement in the wilderness. Only the President's house and one wing of the Capitol were 
ready for occupancy." 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 
PORCELAINE DE MONSIEUR 



29 



While the authenticity of objects of art should be determined by their 
own distinctive characteristics, rather than through the untrustworthy tradi- 
tions which often surround them, it is always a source of gratification to the 
collector to be able to confirm his identification by the reliable evidence of past 
ownership. This is not usually possible when the objects are purchased from 
dealers, but when obtained directly from old families which have preserved 
the historical records of their long cherished possessions, we have corroborative 
proof, whether essential or not, of genuineness. 

With the furniture, described elsewhere in this issue of the Bulletin, 
obtained from the Hopkinson estate, the Museum has come into possession of a 
rare piece of hard paste porcelain, a large, boat-shaped vessel, with high scal- 
loped rim, known as a Monteith, or wine-glass cooler. Monteiths were usually 




HARD PASTE PORCELAIN MONTEITH 
Clignancourt ('775-1790) 

circular, in the eighteenth century, and made of silver, but occasionally they 
were produced in pottery or porcelain and were of oblong form. The famous 
table service of queensware made by Josiah Wedgwood in 1774 for the Em- 
press Catherine II. of Russia, now preserved in the English Palace at Peterhof, 
and commonly known as the "Green Frog" service, contains several fine exam- 
ples similar in form to the Museum piece. 

The origin of the term Monteith is somewhat obscure, but the word is 
believed to have been taken from the name of an eccentric Scotchman, who 
was in the habit of wearing a cloak which was scalloped at the bottom. Dr. 
S. Weir Mitchell, in his charming little book entitled "A Madeira Party," has 
illustrated one of these utensils and described its uses in the ceremonious drink- 
ing of Madeira in olden times. 



k 



30 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

The Museum specimen is thirteen and a quarter inches in length and eight 
and a quarter inches in width. There are twelve notches, or scallops, to accom- 
modate a dozen glasses, which were hung by their feet on the rim of the 
Monteith to permit their bowls to cool in the cracked ice or cold water with 
which the vessel was filled. 

Hard paste porcelain of fine quality was made at Clignancourt (Paris), 
France, from about 1775 to 1790 by Pierre Deruelle, under the patronage of 
Louis Stanislas Xavier, Monsieur de Comte de Provence, brother of King Louis 
XVI, afterwards ascending the throne as Louis XVIII. The product of the 
factory was therefore known as "Porcelaine de Monsieur." 

The Museum piece is beautifully marked in red above the glaze with the 
monogram of the Prince. On each side are bouquets of flowers skilfully 
painted in colors, while the rim is heavily gilded. Since by a royal edict issued 
in 1766, which remained in force until about 1784, the use of gold was pro- 
hibited in all the French factories but that at Sevres, it is probable that the 
Museum's accession was made some time between 1785 and 1790. 

E. A. B. 



THE MAGI IN ART 

The January issue of the Museum Bulletin contains an article on a 
recent purchase of a fine Spanish wood carving, representing the Adoration of 
the Magi, who, as is well known, are commonly represented in art as three, 
and of whom on the carving described, one is obviously missing. After the 
issue of the number, the unsigned letter given below was received, and as from 
the fact of the writer's having received the number mentioned, it would appear 
that it was written by a subscriber, the author of the article takes pleasure in 
answering it here. The letter reads as follows : 

"If you r^ad your Testament, 2d Chapter of Matthew, you will find 'wise 
men from the East came from Jerusalem.' Not 'Three Magi.' Of course 
there never was a third figure on the other side. Is best to correct that state- 
ment about third figure on other side. Much astonished others besides myself. 

"A Friend." 

In answer, the writer of the article would say that in all ancient Christian 
art the adoration of the Magi represents the Virgin and Child receiving the 
homage of "three" wise men from the East. When the title "king" was 
applied to them is unknown. In the Catacombs where more than twenty 
representations occur, the Magi are represented clad in tunics and Phrygian 
caps. They bear presents and their number varies from three to six. The 
legends that clustered around the Magi in early Christian times are innumer- 
able. The Armenian Qiurch claims that they were Kings of Armenia. As 
is well known, the word Magi merely denotes priests or sages and is a Persian 
rendering of "wise men." In the great mosaic frieze of the Church of S. 
Appollinare Nuovo at Ravenna built by Theodoric the Goth about A. D. 500 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 37 

as an Arian Church, but reconstructed for CathoHc worship in 570, on one 
side of the nave the three Magi head a long row of female martyrs who come 
to lay their crowns at the feet of the Infant Christ held on the \'irgin's knee. 
Indeed such representations are too numerous to recite here, but the contrast 
of gorgeous royalty with the humble manger was soon lost sight of and the 
stable and the Virgin's modest array as given by Giotto, in time were changed 
into a throne and queenly raiment when she received the homage of the three 
"wise men" turned into kings. As some one has put it: "The representation 
of a historic legend grew to a devotional expression of fervor." In mediaeval 
times, even names were found for the three Magi : "Jasper" or "Caspar" was 
old ; Melchior was in the prime of life ; and Balthazar was young. In some 
examples the latter or his attendant is represented black, to indicate that 
Christ came to save all races of mankind ^'\ Travelers to this day, wherever 
they see "Drei Konige" or "Les trois Rois" in front of Continental hotels, or 
"Three Kings" above the door of an English inn, understand of course that 
the three Magi are thereby referred to. Without referring "A Friend" to the 
innumerable important art works which may or may not be accessible to her, 
the writer may refer her for an elaboration of the above verv common theme 
to two recently published little books easily obtainable : "Our Lady in Art," by 
Mrs. Henry James, Ch. XI (McClurg, 1910), and "Sacred Symbols in Art" 
by Elizabeth E. Goldsmith, p. 107 (Putnam, 191 1). 



NORWEGIAN CARVED SIDEBOARD 

A handsome specimen of Norwegian carving and inlaying was presented 
to the Museum recently by Mr. Emlyn Stewardson. It was acquired at the 
time of the Centennial Exposition. It is of oak wood. The upper part resem- 
bles in its general decorative plan the ancient retables of mediaeval provenance, 
being divided into three sections representing religious scenes. These are 
divided by elaborately carved uprights forming the sides of a framework in 
which the scenes are set, and approaching the triptych plan. The central sec- 
tion represents the Crucifixion. At the foot of the Cross are the Virgin and 
St. John, on one side is the scene of the Nativity, on the other that of the 
Circumcision. The flat surfaces are inlaid in dark wood on a light ground- 
work of veneer set into the oak. Beneath the top shelf of the sideboard, the 
central section represents the Last Supper, on either side of which are medal- 
lions encircled with conventional decorative motives. The plain surfaces of 
the lower part of the piece of furniture are inlaid in arabesques and unicorns 
of light wood on darker wood surfaces set in. Here again are three Biblical 
scenes in high relief : The Annunciation ; the Birth of the Infant Christ in the 

(1) See for instance Memling's "Adoration," etc., in the Hospital of St. John, at 
Bruges. 

It is possible that the choice of three may have been influenced by the fact that 
three in Egypt represented the plural. It is impossible to overlook the great direct and 
indirect influence of Northern Africa upon early Christian Symbolism. Viewed in this 
light the three wise men would concretely represent entire mankind. 



32 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




NORWEGIAN SIDEBOARD 
From the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 33 

stable; and the adoration of the Magi. Between are heavily carved half 
figures in high relief, below which hang heavy clusters of fruit. The two ends 
are carved with medallions and conventional decorative motives. The round 
feet are massive. Indeed, massiveness is the characteristic feature of the entire 
sideboard. S. Y. S. 



OLD AMERICAN PEWTER 

The early history of pewter making in the United States has not vet been 
written, but it is known that during the first half of the eighteenth century, 
if not prior to that time, pewter ware was being manufactured in Philadelphia. 
During the first quarter of the nineteenth century the art of pewter making 
flourished in Philadelphia, and the Museum collection contains representative 
examples of many of the prominent pewterers of the period. 

An interesting ale tankard bearing the mark of Robert Palethorpe, Jr., who 
was a pewter ware maker at 50 North Second street in 181 7, has recently been 
added to the Museum's collection of American metalwork. The peculiarity 
of this example is that it possesses a lid of singular construction, having in the 
center an open neck, and at one side a circular orifice closed by a cork ball 
v\'hich can be covered by a perforated metal arm which revolves on a pivot. 
In the upper part of the handle of the mug are three holes communicating with 
the interior and which can be closed with the thumb of the drinker. 

Another interesting accession is a pewter holy water vat with bail handle, 
made by Homan & Company, who were pewter makers in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
about fiftv vears ago. The handle is handsomely chased. 




AMERICAN PEWTER 



34 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



The third piece shown in the cut is an ale tankard bearing the mark of 
Parks Boyd, who was a pewter maker in Philadelphia between 1800 and 1812. 

Probably the most important manufacturers of pewter in Philadelphia 
during the early part of the nineteenth century were Thomas Danforth, whose 
address was High (now Alarket) and Thirteenth streets, as indicated in the 
directories from 1807 to 1813, and B. Barns, whose shop was situated at Thir- 
teenth and Filbert streets from 181 1 to 1817. Numerous marked examples 
of ware produced by these makers may be seen in the Museum collection. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM AND SCHOOL 
OF INDUSTRIAL ART 





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THE MUSEUM 

During the Centennial Exhibition, which was held for six months in 1876, 
Memorial Hall, in Fairmount Park, was used as an art gallery. At its close 
permission to occupy the building as a permanent art museum was granted to 
the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art bv the Directors of 
Memorial Hall. 

On May 10, 1877, exactly one year after the inauguration of the Centen- 
nial Exhibition, the doors of Memorial Hall were opened as a permanent 
museum. During the early years a small admission fee was charged, but since 
January i, 1881, the constantly increasing collections have been on exhibition 
free to the public every day in the year. 

In 1883 a fund of $50,000 was placed in trust for the benefit of the Penn- 
sylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art by the late Joseph E. Temple, 
three-fifths of the interest from which being set apart for the purchase of 
objects of art for the Museum, and two-fifths for the uses of the School. This 
income is a perennial benefaction which has enabled the Museum authorities 
from time to time to secure some of the best works of antiquity and of modern 
art. Many of the most valuable exhibits in the Museum bear the label of the 
Temple Trust, and in this manner the memory of the donor is constantly being 
revived. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



35 




WROUGHT IRON LOCK 

Designed and Executed by Samuel Yellin 

Formerly a Student of the School 



The Pennsylvania Museum has, ever since its inception, occupied a posi- 
tion unique among American art institutions. It was originally dedicated not 
only to the fine arts, but to the industrial arts as well, covering the broadest 
field of art, in all its branches, so that the collections which have been formed 
include not only examples of the most artistic work of all countries and times 
procurable, but also educational exhibits illustrating the history, development 
and manufacturing processes of the various departments of industrial achieve- 
ment. The study of the processes employed in the different arts is sure to 
result in a fuller appreciation of the technical difficulties which have been over- 
come in the production of the beautiful examples of human handicraft in which 
the Museum abounds. While the arts of all countries are represented in the 
collections, particular attention has been paid to the gathering together of 
objects illustrating the history of various American manufactures, with the 
result that several extensive and unique exhibits, of more than ordinary 
interest, are to be found in the Museum, which have attracted much attention 
both in this country and abroad, such as the John T. Morris collection of 
American Pottery and Porcelain, and the collections of American Glass and 
Metal work. 



36 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL'^ MUSEUM 




THE SCHOOL 

Organized in 1877, the School of the Pennsylvania Museum has been for 
thirtv-six years the leading educational institution in America in which the 
ideals of art are directly and effectually associated with practical industrial 
aims. How successful its methods have been is convincingly indicated by the 
records made by its graduates and the eagerness of the demand that exists for 
them at present. 

The vocational purpose to be developed largely along artistic lines, which 
is now so generally accepted as an essential feature of general education, has 
created an enormous demand for qualified teachers and supervisors of draw- 
ing, painting, modelling and craft work, while the industries themselves in 
which the art element is most important have depended in no small degree for 
their development on men and women trained in the School. During the year 
191 2, for instance, the Business Bureau of the Art Department received 
more than one hundred applications for graduates, or pupils qualified to fill 
important positions. 

In the one department, that of textiles, which the institution has been 
able to develop into a completely equipped technical school, the success of its 
graduates and its influence on the industries have been not less marked. A 
careful census made recently showed that textile establishments representing 
upwards of thirty million dollars in capital and operating about 40,000 looms, 
were largely controlled, and the character of their output mainly determined, 
by former pupils of this School, who have become either owners or partners, 
managers, superintendents, designers, or commercial agents, by whom the 
advantages of this kind of education are appreciated and utilized quite as 
directly as by those engaged in actual production. In the department of Metal 
Work the School has rendered very distinguished service in developing not 
only the copper, brass and silver work, but work in wrougbt iron, perhaps the 
noblest form of industrial art. 

Among the other branches of industrial art taught at the School may be 
particularly mentioned the designing and making of jewelry, stained glass and 
pottery, in each of which gratifying progress has been made. 

The change in the ideas of furnishing private houses, or public buildings, 
is one of the greatest which has occurred in the period since 1876, before which 
time there was no studv of interior decoration in America. Now the demand 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



37 



for expert designers and decorators is national. The belief in harmony of 
effect is so strong that it is a cult, and a profession, and one of the most 
liberally remunerated. The School has undoubtedly the best course in this 
subject offered anywhere. 

The course in illustration has become more important, and more distinctly 
professional each year. The type of work is decorative, as distinguished from 
the pictorial, a style much better related to the needs of the advertiser and the 



wm^ 








SALT-GLAZED STONEWARE BOWL 

Byzantine-Romanesque Style 

Designed and Executed by a Student of the School 

magazine publisher. Books, too, are taking on a much richer and more 
decorative character. The covers, the margins, and the opening and ending 
features (the accompaniment altogether), have shown a markedly less literal 
interpretation. The constant study of the living model is as much to train 
the student in the principles of invention as in actual resemblance. 

The School was the first to use cement (concrete) as a material for dec- 
orative garden vases, seats, fountains, and other objects, as well as to enrich 
them by mosaic inlays. A series of large jars in Byzantine, Gothic, 
and Renaissance styles was produced one season. Another year, foun- 
tains. Another year a set of forms adapted to the inlays, and to a chiseled 
surface treatment similar to dressed stone. Some of these are associated with 
heavy wrought iron supports, while others are set in bases of marble. 



38 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




The growth of public museums and 
important private collections has created 
a need for young men and women who 
are qualified to take charge of and ar- 
range with proper archaeological knowl- 
edge and good taste the diverse objects 
which have been gathered together for 
exhibition and instruction. A course has 
been added to the School curriculum for 
the training of curators in theoretical 
and practical work in the Museum and 
of docents, qualified to take classes 
through the collections. Besides prac- 
tical work, an effort is made to give the 
students of the normal class a general 
view of the history of ancient art, of its 
origin and of its bearing upon modern 
applied arts and the history of ornament. 

The Alumni Association of the 
Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art is one of the practical 
agencies for the increase of attendance 
and the improvement of quality of at- 
tainment. It was established to help the 
School and the students, and has lived to 
make considerable history to prove its 
value. The direct means for furthering 
the cause of its Alma Mater are the 
sending out to various cities and towns, 
exhibits of students' work as a revela- 
tion to those "afar off," and the holding 
of exhibitions of art objects presented to 
the School, or of professional work done 
bv members, to show those near enough 
to attend what is required and what is 
accomplished. It publishes annually a 
pamphlet, which is widely circulated, to 
acquaint the public with the opportunities 
offered in the classes, and with the 
achievements of those who were educated 
here. It also assists students unable to 
complete full courses to return for the 
purpose, by providing scholarships for 
advanced work, and a loan fund for 
financial aid, all of which aft'ect the 
School's standing, as inspiring the char- 
acter of the attendance, and increasing 



GOTHIC CLOCK CASE 
Designed and Executed by a Student of the Schoo 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANL^ MUSEUM 



39 



the number of o;raduates. Six of these scholarships are awarded for advanced 
study in the School, viz : 

The Charles Godfrey Leland Scholarship. Founded by Mrs. John Har- 
rison. 

The M. Theresa Keehmle Scholarship and the Aspasia Eckert Ramborger 
Scholarship. Founded by Mr. William Keehmle Ramborger. 

The Edward Tonkin Dobbins Scholarships (3). Founded by Miss Mary 
A. Dobbins. 




ORIGINAL BOOK ILLUSTRATION 

In Black and White 

By a Student of the School 



To these have been lately added three foreign scholarships for study in Italy, 
given by Mrs. James Mifflin, Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott, and Mr. Charles Burn- 
ham Squier. The first holders of these will go abroad in June. 

Besides these specified things, the Association has active committees to 
meet and welcome and comfortably establish new students who come as 
strangers to the city, to explain school conditions to them and to visit them 
when ill. All new pupils are entertained and made acquainted at a reception 
and musicale given them early in the season, and one of the Committees has 
charge of the reunion and reception at Commencement time. The Business 
Bureau connected with the Association finds employment for many members. 



40 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

NOTES 

Cover Design — The design for the cover of this issue of the Bulletin 
was drawn by John Ray Sinnock, a pupil of the School. 

Special Edition — A special edition of five thousand copies of the April 
number of the Bulletin will be issued. 

Sicilian Cart — A Sicilian cart lent by Mrs. Richard Wain Meirs is 
painted in brilliant colors with scenes from the life of the "Great Count of 
Sicily," youngest son of Tancred de Hauteville, born in 1031, died in iioi ; 
became Roger I., ruler of Sicily, in 1072. These scenes are accompanied by 
inscriptions, as follows : 

Ruggiero entra in Palermo (Roger enters Palermo). 

Ruggiero riceve i prigioniere (Roger receives the prisoners). 

Ruggiero fa benedire la bandiera (Roger obtains a blessing on the banner). 

Coronazione di Ruggiero (Coronation of Roger). 

WiLSTACH Gallery — There have recently been added to the Wilstach 
Collection a painting by an artist known as "The Master of Saint-Sang ;" 
"Peasant Boy," by E. Bastian-Lepage ; a full length portrait of a young girl, 
entitled "From the Fields," by J. Cave, a French artist; and an interesting 
painting of an interior, by Pieter de Hooch. 

New Cases — Four new exhibition cases, the gift of Mr. John H. Mc- 
Fadden, have been placed in the Southwest Pavilion, to facilitate the classifica- 
tion and grouping of the Collections of Classical Antiquities. In them have 
been installed the ancient glass, the Cypriote vases, the Corinthian pottery, 
and the Red Figured Greek vases. 

Two new table cases have been made for the Bloonifield Moore Collection, 
for the better display of the Wedgwood jasper cameos and medallions, and the 
Chinese snuff boxes. 

Convention — The annual meeting of the American Association of 
Museums will be held in Philadelphia June 3d, 4th, and 5th next. The 
delegates, from the various museums and art galleries throughout the country, 
will be entertained at the Museum in Memorial Hall, on one of the afternoons, 
and given an opportunity to inspect the collections. 

Chessmen — The interesting collection of chessmen and early books on 
chess, which has been lent by Mr. James F. Magee, Jr., will be described in an 
early issue of the Bulletin. 



15tf^|15C 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA IMUSEUM 



41 



ACCESSIONS 
January — March, 1913 



CLASS 



OBJECT 



HOW ACQUIRED 



Arms and 
Armor 

Books and 
Prints 



Carvings 



Ceramics 



Furniture 



Glass 



Goldsmith's 
and Silver- 
smith's 
Work 



Metalwork 



Models 
Musical In- 
struments 
Textiles 



'Given by INIiss Elizabeth C. Roberts. 



'Bought — Annual Membership Fund. 



Steel Morion, Engraved Decoration, Italian, End 

of i6th Century Bought — Annual Membership Fund. 

Elegiac Poem on the Death of General George 

Washington, Printed on White Satin, rSoo Given by Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts. 

Pack of Educational Playing Cards, English, c. 

1790 Bought. 

Collection of Books and Photographs Relating to 

Chess Lent by Mr. James F. Magee, Jr. 

Collection of Colored Fashion Plates, 1798-1863.. Given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth. 
Collection of Carved Wood and Ivory Chessmen 

of Various Countries Lent by Mr. James F. Magee, Jr. 

Set of Ivory Chessmen, Chinese Lent by Mr. John Culin. 

16 Pieces of Pottery and Porcelain Lent by Dr. Edwin AtLee Barber. 

2 Pottery Lustre Bowls, Staffordshire, England, 

c. 1830 Given by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 

Brown Pottery Pitcher. Relief Decoration, Grey-'' 

hound Handle, England, c. 1S40 

Pottery Pitcher. Tam O'Shanter Design, By Wil- 
liam Ridgway & Co., Hanley. England, 1835.. 
Stoneware Pitcher, Classical Reliefs, Probably by 

Alcock, Staffordshire, England, c. 1835.... 
2 Pottery Goblets, Capper Lustre, Staffordshire." 

England, c. 1825 

Sugar Bowl. Black Basalte Ware, Wedgwood 

Style, by Baddeley, Eastwood, England, c. 1790 
Creamer. Black Basalte Ware, Made at Leeds 

Pottery, England, c. 1780 > 

Stoneware Jug with Pewter Lid, by W. Ridgway 

& Co., Hanley, England. 1835 Bought. 

Monteith, Hard Paste Porcelain. CHgnancourt, 

France, 1775-1790 Bought with Funds Given by the Asso- 
ciate Committee of Women. 
Walnut Sideboard, Elaborately Carved and In- 
laid, Norwegian, 1876 Given by Mr. Emlyn Stewardson. 

Pier Table, English, Early 19th Century ; 'iBought with Funds Given by the Asso- 

Wall Table, Mahogany and Marble, French, Early j j^j^te Committee of Women. 

1 9th Century ^ 

26 Pieces of Old Glass Lent by Dr. Edwin AtLee Barber. 

Glass Mug, Decorated in Enamel Colors, Spanish, 

i8th Century Given by Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts. 

Collection of Amulets, — Gold, Silver, Coral, etc.. 
Old Italian Given by Mrs. James Mifflin. 

Silver Porringer, Made by Benjamin Burt, Bos- 
ton, 1729-1804 Bought — Annual Membership Fund. 

2 Silver Teaspoons, Made by Felix Thibault, 

Philadelphia, 1814-1837 Given by Mr. Maurice Brix. 

Pewter Ale Mug, Made by R. Palethorpe, Phila- 
delphia, c. 1817 Bought — Annual Membership Fund. 

3 Iron Stove Plates with Relief Decoration, Penn-"~| 
sylvania-German, 18th Century 

Ten-Plate Iron Stove, Arms of Pennsylvania in ^Bought— Joseph E. Temple Trust. 

Relief on Front. Made at the District Furnace. 

Pa., Early 19th Century J 

Model of Palanquin, Bearers, etc.. East Indian... Lent by Mr. I. Archer Rulon. 
Zither, Old German Bought. 

Silk Robe, Buddhistic Motives, etc., Chinese Given by Mrs. Henry P. Borie. 

6 Old Crocheted Silk Bags Lent by Mrs. Hampton L. Carson. 

Embroidered Silk Waistcoat, French, Period of 

Louis XVI Given by Mrs. James Miffrin. 

8 Pieces of Silk Brocade, French, Period of . ,, -r r^ ^.« • 

Louis XVI Given by Mr. J. E. O Bnen. 



L 



42 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANLaV MUSEUM 



MEMBERSHIP 

The Trustees of the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art 
desire the active co-operation of all pub- 
lic-spirited citizens who are known to be 
in sympathy with its educational work. 
All such persons are invited to become 
members. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS 

Patrons — Tliosc who contribute tlie 
sum of $5000 or more whether in money 
or objects for the Museum. 

Life Members — Those who contribute 
the sum of $ioo or more at one time. 

Annual Members — Those who contri- 
bute not less than $T0 yearly. 

The contributions received from Pa- 
trons ($5000), and from Life Members 
($100), are added to the permanent En- 
dowment Fund. Contributions from An- 
nual Members ($10) are used to the best 
advantage in the development of the 
Museum and the School. 

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP 

All members are entitled to the fol- 
lowing benefits: 

The right to vote and transact busi- 
ness at the Annual Meeting. 

Invitations to all general receptions 
and exhibitions held at the Museum and 
the School. 

Free access to the Museum and School 
Libraries and admission to all lectures. 

Also a copy of each of the following 
publications: 

The Annual Report of the Corpora- 
tion. 

The Annual Circulars of the School 
of Applied Art and the Philadelphia 
Textile School. 

The Art Handbooks and Art Primers, 
issued from time to time bj' the Museum 
(a printed list of publications will be 
mailed to any member on application). 

The Illustrated Quarterly Bulletin of 
the Museum. 

A list of members is published each 
year in the Annual Report. 

Applications for membership, and re- 
mittances should be sent to The Secre- 
tary, P. M. & S. I. A., Memorial Hall, 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOURS OF ADMISSION 

The Museum is open, free to the pub- 
lic, every day in the year. 
Opening Hours: 

Mondays at 12 M. 
Other Week Days at 9:30 A. M. 
Sundays at i P. M. 
Closing Hours: 

During the summer months, 5 P. M. 
(Sundays, 6 P. M.) 
During the winter months, a half 
hour before sunset. 



CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS, ETC. 

(On sale at the South Entrance) 

Handbook of the Museum $ .25 

A Brief History of the Bayeux Tap- 
estry 10 

Cork Models of Windsor Castle, 
Tower of London, Westminster 
Abbey, Church of St. Peter, Rome .10 

The Great Seals of England 25 

Handbook of the Collection of Tulip 
Ware of the Pennsylvania-German 
Potters: 

Paper cover i.oo 

Large paper edition, Cloth .... 5.00 

Handbook of the Maiolica of Mexico : 

Paper cover i.oo 

Flexible Art Canvas 2.00 

Art Primer No. 3, Lead Glazed Pot- 
tery 50 

Art Primer No. S, Tin Enameled 
Pottery 50 

Art Primer No. 6, Salt Glazed Stone- 
ware 50 

Art Primer No. 9, Hard Paste Porce- 
lain 50 

Art Primer No. 11, Artificial Soft 
Paste Porcelain So 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Mu- 
seum (quarterly), per annum i.oo 



Friends of the Institution who desire 
to devise to it money should use the fol- 
lowing: 

Form of Bequest 

I give and bequeath unto the Penn- 
sylvania iMuseum and School of Indus- 
trial Art the sum of 

dollars for the use of the said Corpora- 
tion. 

Witnesses, 



Form of Devise of Real Estate 

I give and devise unto the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum and School of Industrial 
Art, its successors and assigns, all that 
certain (here insert a description of the 
property) for the use of the said Cor- 
poration. 



Witnesses, 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



■ USKUM «OMMirrKK 



John Stoby Jsnks, Chairman 
Thomas Skzlton Hauisom 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Mokris 
John W. Pepper 
Edcab V. Seeleb 



Edwabo T. Stotesbuky 

Mbs. W. T. Caster 

Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Miss Fannib S. Magex 

Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 

Mrs. John Harrison, Ex OMcio 

Miss Anna Blanchard, Honorary 

Edwin AtLei Barber, Director of the Museum 

Mrs. Cornelius Stevsinson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 



MONORART CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroidery Mrs. John Harbison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jones Wisteb 

European Porcelain Ret. Alfred Duane Pbll 

Arms and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Kettereh 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Prints, Book Plates and Historic Seals Charles £. Dana 

Numismatics F. D. Langenheim 

Sculpture, Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Caluer 



iNSTRueriON eoMMirrec 



Theodore C Search, Chairmam 
Charles Bond 
Charles K Dana 
Charles H. Harding 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jenks 
John D. McIlhenny 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 



Mrs. John Harrison, Ex OMcio 



Jones Wister 
William Wood 
Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



ARBOCIATC COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



PRESIDENT 

Mrs. John Harrison 

SECRETARY 

Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 



VICE-PRESIOCNT 

Mrs. Thomas Roberts 

TREHSURCR 

Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 



Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch 
Mrs. Rudolph Blankenburc 
Miss Louise W. Bodine 
Mas. Jasper Yeates Brinton 
Mrs. John H. Brinton 
Mrs. William T. Carter 
Miss Margaret Clyde 
Miss Margaret L. Corlies 
Miss Ada M. Crozer 
Mrs. David E. Dallam 



Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Countess Santa Eulalia 
Miss Cornelia L. Ewing 
Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 
Mrs. W. W. Gibbs 
Mrs. C. Leland Harrison 
Miss M. S. Hinchman 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus 
Miss Nina Lea 



Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 
Mrs. James Mifflin 
Mrs. Francis F. Milns 
Mrs. John W. Pepper 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



HONORARY MEMBCRE 



Mrs. M. Hampton Todd 



Miss Anna Blanchard